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  1. Grant of patent rights
    (i) When a company introduces a new product or new technology it applies to the government to grant it patent certificate by which it gets exclusive rights to produce new product or use new technology.
    (ii) Patent rights prevent others to produce the same product or use the same technology without obtaining license from the concerned company. Patent rights are granted by the government for a certain number of years.
  2. Licensing by Government : A monopoly market emerges when government gives a firm license, i.e. exclusive legal rights to produce a given product or service in a particular area or region.

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